Bowel diseases include diarrhea, dysentery, thypus, hepatitis A, are still a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Indonesia, as developing country. The said disease is caused by viruse, bacteria, fungi, etc. that spreads from one person to another majority through contamination of water lines. Based on data from Ministry of Health in 2019, Indonesia had a total of 4 million people having diarrhea. The incidence of diarrhea in infant case under 1 year was 831 per 1000 babies.
Gastrointestinal disease is a contagious disease, one of which is caused by poor sanitation. Toilet ownership is one indicator to assess sanitation in one area. In 2019, Indonesia 80 million people did not have own toilets or around 30% of the total Indonesian citizens. This makes Indonesia as one of the highest countries that has the highest number of population without toilet access in Asia.
WHO categorizes gastrointestinal diseases as "neglected tropical diseases". Gastrointestinal disease is a transferable disease that people who is sick and has healed, yet still continue to release the bacteria and viruses that may infect others when they defecate. Bacteria and viruses will pollute the water and soil, and when the water used to wash utensils, wash the hands then the disease transmission begins. The report shows that almost all open water sources are polluted by E. Coli Bacteria. The research indicates that the wells in communities which are contaminated by E. Coli Bacteria, represents 60-84% of the total wells. Even the water from the taps is majority contaminated by the said bacteria as well.
Contamination in the soil is also considered high. Water and soil contamination by human waste (faeces) in developing countries are the most polluted causing morbidity and mortality society. In one area, although only one family who has no toilet is enough to pollute the whole environment. This requires the total effort for all residents in a particular area (village, sub-district, district to district level) to remedy this situation.
The approach of having own toilet is better compared to the previous government's effort that built the public toilet for some areas. This approach was mostly failed, because toilet is supposed to be used for private need or daily usual use, thus the maintenance was poor. In addition, building public toilet is deemed to be more expensive than family toilet. In the end, communities still preferred to use river or bushes for defecating.
To change defecation habit from bush and river to using toilet, the Rotary Program will provide the following :
1. Generic toilet (shown in the picture below) and all materials (i.e. pipes, plastics, cements etc)
2. Educating the importance of having own toilet for health purpose and how to make own toilet.
3. Supervising the work of making the toilet.
The program will be lead by PP Dr Budi Laksono (member of RC Semarang Pandawa D3420 Indonesia). Families will be educated to make their own family toilets. Whilst, Rotary will provide the materials needed i.e Squad toilet, pipes, cements etc
PP Budi has the patience to fulfill his dream to make Indonesia free from these tropical deseases caused by E Coli Bacteria. Since 2015, he has build around 1 million throughout Indonesia, sponsored by private companies for their CSR Programs as we as various organizations in Indonesia as well as abroad.
For the time being, Indonesia is lacking a total toilet of 20 million families. With the assumption of one family consists of 4 peoples, the total number of people who do defecation in the river or bushes, reach 80 million (out of the total 260 million Indonesian Citizens or representing 30.7%).
Rotary District 3420 is planning to build 5000 toilets spreading throughout the District which consists of 54 Clubs during the year of 2021-2022. (1st July 2021 - 31st June 2022)
The total cost will be 5000 toilets x USD 38 = USD 190.000
1. Good Public Image For Rotary.
We will make the good publication throughout the District 3420 as well as Rotary International
2. Family Toilet Approach.
By having own toilet, the need of proper defecation of every member of each family could be fulfilled. In addition, the family members will make sure that the toilets are clean and well maintained.
3. Generic and Affordable Toilet.
The program has been very successful given the low budget of making own toilet.
By participating the above Family Toilet Projects, you would take an important role in building healthy sanitation which in turn could improve the health of Indonesian citizens.
DGE Cindy Bachtiar
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