Mountain Spring Potable Water Development (III)
Funding Agencies: Rotary District 5440
Rotary Club of Fort Collins - Breakfast
Trinity Lutheran Church, Fort Collins, CO USA
Implementer: Wolaitta Development Association
List of Acronyms
CSA - Central Statistical Agency
EC - Ethiopian calendar
ETB - Ethiopian birr
FDRE - Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
ha - Hectare (approximately 2.47 acres)
Kebele - Lowest level of government in Ethiopia
km - Kilometer (1000 meters; approximately 0.62 miles)
MASL - Meters above sea level
NGO - Non-governmental Organization
SNNPRS - Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State
USD - United States Dollar
WASH - Water, Satiation and Hygiene
WATSAN - Water and Sanitation
WODA- Wolaitta Development Association
I. Program Identification
1.1 Name of the project: Mountain Spring Potable Water Development Project III
1.2 Location of the project
Region: Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS)
Districts: Bayira Koisha and Damot Woide districts
1.3 Funding agencies: Rotary District 5440; Rotary Club of Fort Collins - Breakfast; Trinity Lutheran Church, Fort Collins, CO USA
1.4 Contact Persons:
Habtamu Tomotwos Salla
Director General, Wolaitta Development Association
Wolaitta Development Association
Tel. +25465513692/ + 25465512188
Project Focal Person: Tamrat Mathewos Zema
Membership Development & Program Deputy Chief Executive
1.4 Implementing Agency: Wolaitta Development Association
1.5 Project Budget: $18,260
1.6 Project Duration: One year (Starting January, 2022)
II. Project Summary
Connecting the water resource potential of the country is critical for the achievement of rapid and sustainable socioeconomic development. The focus will be on efficient water resource utilization and development. Integrated water resource development and utilization will give emphasis to the parallel usage of water supply, irrigation development, watershed management and water infrastructure development activities.
The major objective of the Mountain Spring Potable Water Development Project III for the community is to contribute to improving the health and well-being in rural areas by increasing the water supply and sanitation access, and the adoption of good hygiene practices in an equitable and sustainable manner.
The specific objectives of the project are to increase access to regulated safe drinking water through mountain spring capping and water distribution point construction. This will provide alternatives for living by reducing the need to access polluted drinking water. The main project activities are (1) mobilization of community (Woide Masana Kebele in Baira Koisha District and Bedesa Elo Kebele in Damot Woide District); (2) construction of reservoir for night storage of water; (3) extension of water lines to water points where the community can easily obtain water; and (4) and establish water users' committees.
The project will develop networking among the Wolaitta Development Association, Damot Woide and Bayira Koisha district communities, and stakeholders. The project insures efficient and effective resource utilization that enhances development in Damot Woide and Baira Koisha districts.
The project will expend $18,260 in its life span. The donors cover the above expense for the project implementation period.
There are 6,607 community members (male 3,506female 3,101) direct beneficiaries of the project whereas 13,689 people (male 4,971 female 8,898) could be indirectly benefited by the project.
III. Project Background and Justification
3.1 Background Information
The Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Regional State (SNNPRS) is one of nine regions and three towns that have administrative authority in Ethiopia. Regions are divided into Zones. The SNNPRS capital is Hawassa. It borders Kenya to the south, the Ilemi Triangle (a region claimed by Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Sudan) to the southwest, South Sudan to the west, the Ethiopian region of Gambela to the northwest, and the Ethiopian region of Oromia to the north and east.
Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), the SNNPRS has an estimated total population of 15,042,531 of whom 7,482,051 are men and 7,560,480 women. 13,496,821 or 89.72% of the population are rural inhabitants, while 1,545,710 or 10.28% are urban. This makes the SNNPRS Ethiopia's most rural region. With an estimated area of 112,343 square kilometres, this region has an estimated density of 134 people per square kilometre. For the entire region 3,087,567 households were counted, which results in an average of 4.9 persons in rural areas and 4.2 persons in urban areas. The total population of the SNNPRS is about 15,042,531 of which females constitute 51.3%. Among the total population those in the 15 - 24 age class constitute 38.6%.
Wolaitta is the name of both the people and area in the SNNPRS located between 6º51" and 7º35" North Latitude and 37º46" and 38º1" East Longitude. It is located about 330 kilometers southwest of Addis Ababa, and 160 kilometers from Hawassa.
Wolaitta is one of the fourteen zones of the SNNPRS. With a total area of 4,471.3 square kilometers Wolaitta is inhabited by over 1.9 million people. The current average population density of the Zone is 428.2 per square kilometer. According to the SNNPRS Regional Statistical Abstract, the average population density of Wolaitta is over 385 people per square kilometer making it one of the most densely populated areas in the country.
Maximum rainfall is received from July to September and ranges from 1,200-1,300 mm, which compares favourably with many other places in the country. However, rainfall is erratic in time and space. There are three rainy seasons in Wolaitta known as: Belg (March to May), Meher (July to September) and Saphie (November and December).
The topography of Wolaitta zone is composed of rugged undulating mountains, rolling hills, plateau, and plain that extend to the lowland of Lake Abaya. In terms of the agro-ecology of the area 9% is highland 'Dega', 56% is midland 'Woina Dega' and 35% is lowland 'Kolla'.
The altitude ranges from the lowest at the foot of the Omo river valley at 501 MASL to the highest 2,950 MASL at Mount Damota. The average temperature varies from a minimum of 170c to a maximum of 310c. There are more than thirty small and medium sized rivers.
The major economic activities are agriculture and livestock rearing. About 92% of the population live in rural areas engaged in subsistence farming. The major agricultural activities are the production of maize and root crops, and there is less production of wheat and barley. 50% of food consumption comes from agriculture, 40% from market purchases, and 10% from animal and other products. Out of the total cultivable land area of the zone, which is 232,867.12 ha, the cultivated land is 142,684.88 ha (61.3 %); 91,427 ha of forest; 48,082 ha (20.6%) is grazing land; 17,022 ha is irrigable; 3,113 ha is irrigated; and 31,710 ha is other uses. The road network connecting the communities is acceptable.
According to the Zone socio-economic data abstract for 2011, 14.7% of the people have no lands; 12% have less than 0.1 ha; 32.8% have 0.1-0.5 ha; 22.7% have 0.51-1.00 ha; 11.8% have 1.01-2.00 ha; and only 6% have 2 ha and above. Of those who have no land 2% are women; of those with 0.1 ha of land 6% are women; of those with 0.1-0.5 ha of land 3% are women; of those who have 1.01-2.00 ha of land 16% are women; and of those who have 2 ha and more 7% are women. This indicates women are deprived of their rights to own land resources and this limits other opportunities.
For societal existence, getting access to safe water is very vital. Even though access to clean water is increasing in the zone, access is not increasing with the increasing population. Rapid population growth and intensified human activities have aggravated environmental degradation in the project area. Subsistence agricultural practices on small land holdings and recurrent drought have caused food insecurity for many years. The cumulative effects of drought, population increase, land degradation and dependence on rain-fed agricultural practices have significantly decreased food production. Potable water development from springs will improve the health condition of beneficiaries of the project. Currently, 48.78% of people in the Damot Woide District and 45.85% of people in the Baira Koisha District 45.85% have access only to polluted water.
3.2 Profile of implementing Agency
The Wolaitta Development Association is an indigenous, not-for-profit, and local non-governmental membership-based organization established in the 1950's. It has been most active in integrated development programs in Wolaitta Zone since December, 2000. WODA is re-registered and licensed by the Federal Democratic Government of Ethiopia's Charities and Societies Agency as an Ethiopian Residents Charity in accordance with the charities and societies proclamation no. 621/2009. WODA has been issued the renewed official certificate bearing the number 0486 on December 22, 2015. The head office of the organization is located in Wolaitta Sodo town and branch offices are functional in all the 12 districts and 3 major towns within Wolaitta; and in eight other areas: Addis Ababa, Amibara, Arba Minch, Dilla, Hawassa, Hadaro, Metehara and Shashemene.
One of the major priorities of WODA has been Human Capital Development. Meaningful contributions include: (1) providing access to education through constructing schools in several areas: (2) supplying educational materials for schools; (3) improving education quality through teachers' capacity building; (4) supporting vulnerable children; and (5) supporting students up to tertiary levels. Some tangible results in this regard include: (1) refurbished and maintained 24 primary schools; (2) constructed 12 new schools; (3) constructed and administers the Wolaitta Liqa Special School in Wolaitta Sodo town; (4) supported 809 orphan and vulnerable children in schooling; (5) constructed one public library in Wolaitta Sodo town: (6) equipped and furnished 93 schools with education materials, laboratory equipment, reference books, and furniture: (7) constructed teachers' residents in three schools; (8) supported 2063 poor and OVC students so they could continue their education from primary to university levels; and (9) rewarded 882 students, teachers, directors and schools who/which are believed to be role models in striving towards achieving a quality education in Wolaitta. At the TVET level, 475 trainees have participated in short-term, medium-level trainings provided by Wolaitta Sodo Poly Technique College, Boditti and Areka TVET colleges, and Gesuba TVET Colleges. Another priority area of WODA's intervention has been ensuring Sustainable Livelihood Security and many activities have been implemented in this regard: (1) establishment of a seed multiplication centre; (2) provision of different agricultural inputs; (3) construction of a veterinary post; (4) construction of access roads and a bridge on one large river; and (5) rehabilitation of degraded lands.
In an effort to contribute to ensuring livelihood security, WODA has (1) provided a revolving fund for 653 micro-entrepreneurs; (2) provided skill training for 4,751 farmers and cooperative leaders; (3) rehabilitated and planted indigenous tree seedlings on 450 ha of degraded land; (4) maintained two small scale irrigation schemes; (5) constructed houses for 166 displaced people; (6) constructed a grain bank benefiting 400 farmers; and (7) initiated applied research on ginger and `inset` production.
WODA mobilized Wolaitta people and partners to raise ETB 120 million for the construction of asphalt roads in Wolaitta Sodo. This could be cited as one of the best achievements of WODA in socioeconomic development in the Wolaitta Zone.
Another major priority area of WODA has been the provision of Integrated Health services to the needy and vulnerable members of the society. These are mainly children, youths, mothers and people living with HIV/AIDS and disabilities. Only some of the practical achievements are: (1) provision of medical care and food supply for 124 people living with HIV/AIDS; (2) community based rehabilitation, economic empowerment and care for more than 10,000 people with disabilities; (3) construction of six health posts in different districts; (4) maintenance of health posts; (5) provision of health education for the general public and specific groups on population pressure, reproductive health, sanitation and hygiene; (6) construction of deep water wells; (7) enhancement of seven potable water springs; (8) construction of 28 public water supply points; (9) provision of a 22 km water pipe extension; and (10) establishment and capacity building training for 286 WATSAN committee members and water technicians.
IV. The Project Context
The project involves capping two mountain springs, building reservoirs for each spring, and building pipelines to water points for the Baira Koisha and Damot Woide Districts. The project includes community mobilization and awareness for the care of the water resources; participation of the community in project activities; and establishes a WASH committee which will work with the community to teach the community how to consume the water wisely and efficiently.
V. The Problem Statement
5.1 Problem Analysis
Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world and experiences frequent droughts and famines. 84% of the population lives in rural areas and depends on subsistence farming. Only 42% of the population has access to a clean water supply "and only 11% of that number has access to adequate sanitation services". In rural areas of the country these figures drop even lower, resulting in health problems for the villagers and their animals. (International Food Policy Research Institute, Ethiopia Strategy Support Program 2 (ESSP2 June 2010)
Due to this situation, hundreds of people fall ill and die daily as a result of drinking contaminated water; food harvests may be poor due to dependence on rainfall; and livestock die from diseases related to poor water quality. This situation is the cause of a serious social problem, particularly in rural areas, as women and girls have to travel long distances to fetch water and consequently the girls may miss many days of school each year.
Damot Woide District is situated in the south west of Wolaitta zone and has a population of 108,482 (male 52,884; female 55,598). Baira Koisha District has a population of 134,804 (male 64,740; female 70,064). This is according to the Wolaitta Zone Finance and Economic Development Abstract 2020 E.C. In relation of the above information, among this population 37.4% and 58.7% consume less pure water and 62.6% and 41.3% are subject to use unprotected water respectively for the Damot Woide District and the Baira Koisha District. This is a great aggravation for both districts and people tend to leave the districts. The absence of safe and potable water has been a major problem of the Woide Masana Kebele in Baira Koisha District and the Bedesa Elo Kebele in Damot Woide District of Wolaitta Zone for the past several years.
To alleviate the existing conditions of having to utilize unsafe water in these districts, WODA will work with local communities and local governments, WASH committees, and district level Water, Energy and Mine office workers to enhance management of water resources. WODA will provide training for sanitation and hygiene before the project will be handed over to the districts. Secondly, in the future WODA may be able to extend existing water pipelines and construct additional reservoirs for holding water. Hence, the development of these springs and reservoirs is an investment in possible future expansion of the water systems.
In summary, the capping of springs, construction of reservoirs, and the extension of waterlines to distribution points will not only solve problems related to water borne diseases but minimizes excess labour on women and children providing spare time and energy for other activities. It will provide alternatives such as back-yard vegetable production and small scale irrigation for diversified food and additional income.
5.2 Objectives Analysis
The project contributes to the attainment of Sustainable Development Goals. Clearly, it supports the Ethiopian government's expansion of access to safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene initiatives through improving the sanitation and hygiene of the project target areas communities.
The main aspects of the project help to make the local farmers fully engaged in their regular activities. Likewise, Damot Woide and Baira Koisha district farmers will find access to water resources for drinking and this will boost the health condition of the farmers. This project strengthens the integration of water, health education and finance; it helps the partners come together for planning; and it is a tool for capacity development for improved delivery of WASH services. The Mountain Spring Potable Water Development Project III in Damot Woide and Baira Koisha districts reinforces collaboration and networking between communities, government, the Wolaitta Development Association, and other stakeholders.
VI. Objectives of the project
6.1 The general objective
The major objective of this project is to contribute to improving the health and well-being in rural areas by increasing the supply of potable water and providing sanitation training and the adoption of good hygiene practices in an equitable and sustainable manner.
6.2 The specific objective of the project
The specific objective of this project is to increase access to regulated safe drinking water through spring capping, reservoir storage, and water distribution points.
VII. Project Methodology
The implementation of the project involves organizing the community in an asset-based inclusive community development approach; organizing the community WASH committees to take their own responsibility of the project; and creating networking among stakeholders and follow up for monitoring the project long-term. WODA will continue its work with the two communities in the Damot Woide and Baira Koisha districts after the project construction and training are completed. An additional outcome will be better rapport among the community, government, the Wolaitta Development Association, and stakeholders.
7.1 Project beneficiaries
WODA takes into account the disadvantaged groups lacking access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene. In this regard, the project attempts to address 6,607 community members who will be directly benefited by the project. The cost per beneficiary for this project is estimated to be $2.76.
7.2 Outputs and Activities
Project overview, approaches and implementation modalities were finalized.
The project site was visited and information was collected and the project document produced.
Community awareness and understanding of the project was enhanced by involving WODA, government agencies and stakeholders.
Two WASH committees were established.
A bylaw was developed for caring for two spring water utilization systems.
Two springs will be capped.
Water reservoirs will be constructed.
Water extensions lines will be fitted to the water distribution points.
Regular monitoring, documentation and communication of project progress.
Compilation and sharing progress reports with government offices and other stakeholders.
7.3 Project inputs
7.3.1 Project human Inputs
The WODA Plan and Program Operation Directorate takes full responsibility of assigning human resources from the existing WODA structure. Two social workers and an engineer will be recruited for the implementation and follow-up day to day activities.
7.3.2 Material inputs
WODA facilitates all logistics for proper implementation of the project.
7.3.3 Financial inputs
The project will be expended a total of $18,260 in the project life span. WODA will be responsible for the budget administration with WODA Purchase, Finance and Property Administration Directorate. The detailed budget allocation is attached.
7.4 Project Management and Organization
WODA has an organizational structure through with which it carries out a diversity of projects. At the top of the structure is the General Assembly, the supreme body of the organization. Following this is the Management Board composed of highly qualified professionals. On the next lower track is the head office which is directly responsible for implementing the project. Under this structure the Plan and Program Operation Directorate takes the full responsibility for the implementation of the proposed project and the Monitoring and Evaluation section head plays a vital role in consolidation of the project activities with the stakeholders. At the next level, branch offices are found in each district and at the bottom of the structure there are grass-roots development associations.
7.4.2 Monitoring and Evaluation
WODA has the primary responsibility to compile and submit reports of the project for the donors in a scheduled manner. The implementation of project activities will be monitored on a regular and continuous basis. Close monitoring is ensured by clear and succinct reporting systems. Following the established reporting procedures, regular monthly, quarterly, and annual narrative and financial reports will be prepared and dispatched to the stakeholders and concerned government bodies. The evaluation will be made at the end of the project based on the specific objectives of the project proposal.
7.5 Budget Management
The Wolaitta Development Association Purchase, Property and Finance administration directorate manages the financial account of the project and produces accurate records of the project financial flows. The directorate records expenditures and checks the balance of the account to insure project implementation. The directorate produces a monthly report of the financial transactions.
7.6 Community participation
The Damot Woide and Baira Koisha district communities are directly involved in the project activities. They contribute their knowledge, labor, and materials in the process of project implementation. The Damot Woide and Baira Koisha district communities clear the spring development sites and excavate water lines. Furthermore, the communities will be legally organized in WASH committees to manage the utilization of the spring resources. The communities actively participate in monitoring, overviewing and evaluating the project which provides a sense of ownership that will help ensure the long-term sustainability of the project.
VIII. Assumptions and Risks
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has already issued one WASH National Program Document. The objective of the manual is to achieve increased coverage of water supply and sanitation in rural and urban areas in Ethiopia in line with the GTP II 2010- 2015. In most rural and urban areas, the communities have an increased awareness of management and ownership of the program and project activities. The support of development pioneers/partners in WASH programs in the Wolaitta Zone is a good beginning for the implementation of the Mountain Spring Potable Water Development (III) project in the two communities. Ethiopia is applying modern technologies for the appropriate management of project components creating favourable conditions for the implementation of the projects.
Currently, market fluctuations affect the implementation of water projects due to cost increases. In Kindo Kawo Koisha and Hobicha there is a high demand for developing potable water and sanitation training. At this time, WODA can only implement the projects for the Damot Woide and Bayira Koisha Districts. In the future WODA would like to obtain funding to develop potable water projects for other communities.
IX. Phase out strategy
In phasing out the project, WODA hands over the completed project to the Damot Woide and Baira Koisha District Water, Energy and Mine offices. The WASH committees of the two villages will maintain the projects after they have been trained. At the end of the project activities, an exit strategy will be developed in collaboration with all stakeholders that will facilitate the smooth transition of the project to legally organized WASH committees and the respective government offices (Districts) according to CSA proclamation No 621/200.
Timeline: Start January 2022; End June 2022
Funds used for: Stone and concrete cap for each of two springs. Stone and concrete reservoir for each spring. Two water distribution point for each spring/village.
Rotary involvement: Robert G. Waltermire plans to be on-site during at least the early part of construction. A presentation will be made to the Rotary Club of Fort Collins - Breakfast documenting the project.
NOTE: The Wolaitta Development Association has an excellent record for water development projects and many other type of community projects (see above).